However, due to its complex nature, I have struggled to find anywhere to begin.
Nonetheless, a number of days ago I came across a blog entry from an American by the name of Julia Dowling, who herself has also been living in this country for quite some time.
In this entry, 'Bosnian Politics - Possibly Worse than American Politics?', I believe Dowling does a very good job of at least attempting to summarise the nation's political situation to us Westerners.
Here, below, is a copy of the text from her post.
I take absolutely no credit for this entry - all kudos (or opposite, if you disagree) has to go to her.
Anyway, tell us what you think.
I know, I know, it sounds impossible that anything could be worse than the absolute circus going on in Washington DC these days (you know I love you, DC, but get it together). And sometimes I still think that there still is nothing worse than Congress and the schmucks running for the Republican nomination, especially with this birth control business. But realistically we all know that there are many places far worse off than the US of A. Bosnia is by no means in a position similar to Syria, Iran, Zimbabwe or other states in crisis. But the crisis Bosnia had nearly 20 years ago continues to have major ramifications on life today.
Present Bosnian politics have essentially paralyzed the country and the political rhetoric is, many have claimed, not very different from that heard in the years and months leading up to the war in 1992.
|Here's a map of pre-war Bosnia and post-war Bosnia. |
You can see how ethnic groups have moved to stay
within their own entity's borders.
Here’s a quick primer on the post-war political history in Bosnia, which has contributed to the current state of political immobility:
In the fall of 1995, the major warring parties in Bosnia (the Bosnian Serbs and Serbians, the Bosnian Muslims, and the Bosnian Croats and Croatians) were brought together by Richard Holbrooke in Dayton, Ohio for negotiations. The result of the Dayton Accord was a divided Bosnia – two “entities” that would function completely separately except for the National Government which consisted of representatives from the 3 major ethnic groups. Now Bosnia has the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (the Muslim and Croat entity) and the Republika Srpksa (the Serb entity). The majority of Bosnia’s population now lives within the borders of their own ethnicity’s entity, meaning that Bosnia’s interethnic makeup during Yugoslavia has been transformed. Before, villages with Serbs would sit next to Muslim towns, and vice versa. Now most populated areas are majority Serb or majority Muslim or majority Croat (yes, there certainly are exceptions to this, but the overall tone of interethnic cooperation has been destroyed).
Ok, so what does that mean now? It means that almost everything in political life comes down to ethnicity. Whether or not Bosnia’s citizens want this, it is the reality. Three of the four major political parties are ethnically based and consistently spew hateful rhetoric against the other parties. The Muslim majority party, Party of Democratic Action (SDA), cannot ever agree with the Serb majority party (Serb Democratic Party – SDS), who rarely agrees with the Croat majority party, Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ). To be clear, I don’t blame the parties for certain conflicts; recently the Serb Party in Parliament called to abolish the National Court (which charges war crimes transferred from the Hague) because they believe it would be better to try such cases in entity courts. Certainly, a terrible and unjust idea for all ethnic groups involved – how can we expect justice for victims and perpetrators if they are on trial in areas where they are often the hated minority?
But it goes without saying that the Federal Bosnian Government simply does not work. The three ethnic majority parties plus one heavyweight multi-ethnic party (the SDP) have created a stalemate on nearly all national matters. I mean, they were unable to form an official government (one with Ministers of Defense, Foreign Affairs etc…) for FOURTEEN MONTHS. That’s right. Bosnia and Herzegovina operated without a fully-formed government for fourteen months before a breakthrough this December.So critical national affairs are consistently stalled in Sarajevo, but does Bosnia’s politics affect people’s everyday life? You bet.
You better join a political party, and if it’s not the right party for your area, then you’re plum out of luck for things like work, housing, and other advantages that come with Bosnian nepotism and corruption. My friends from all over Bosnia face problems because of politics:A good friend of mine, X, doesn’t agree with ethnic politics, even though X lives in a town where their own ethnic majority is in power . X is instead, a party member of the multi-ethnic SDP party. Guess what? Even though X is a kind, compassionate, and brilliant person who speaks multiple languages, X simply can’t find a job in town. Sorry, you lose because you envision a multi-ethnic future for Bosnia! X has a partner, V, who also faces issues – V is not a member of any political party and because of this, has been blackmailed at work, and has not been offered a long-term contract at their job…. every three months when the contract period is up there is the chance that V will be terminated unless V caves and joins the local ruling political party.*
So people who should be celebrated because they refuse to play into ethnic biases and a political system corrupt from top to bottom are instead left out of the whole process. What does this mean for Bosnia’s future? Where are the moderate, tolerant voices? I honestly don’t know what the future holds for this beautiful country and its incredible residents, but the opportunities denied my friends make me incredibly angry and sad. Political rhetoric is getting worse, and if the economy and employment situation doesn’t improve I don’t see a very peaceful future. Uncertainty makes people afraid, and that can cause them to turn to those who act like they hold the answers – the answers in today’s Bosnia are all ethnic. I don’t have any real insight or suggestions for fixing this, except that education in conflict resolution and tolerance must be taught on the grassroots level. Let’s rebuild relationships so that people can say “you know, I have a Serb friend that is a really great person – maybe those politicians are wrong about all Serbs being evil….” It can only start there.
*To ensure anonymity I have replaced names with letters. In the current Bosnian political climate, it very important to give as few details as possible lest someone happen upon this entry and my words cause even more problems for my friends.